Painting © 2004 Loz
© Copyright 2000-2011 Alan White - All
Site optimised for Microsoft Internet Explorer
John Peel OBE, 1939 - 2004
I WOKE UP THIS MORNING
(Introduction to Blues for the Newcomer)
Max Haymes and Alan White
The Blues have
never been so popular and widespread as they are here in 2009. There are
currently more blues festivals worldwide, both electric and acoustic, than you
can shake a stick at. Everybody it seems, can quote the above main title of
this piece in connection with the Blues. Even if they know nothing or very
little about the genre. It is the latter section of the community this brief
survey is being aimed at.
The Blues evolved
from slavery times at the tail- end of the 19th. C. in the southern
states of the USA. The earliest candidates for its place of ‘birth’ are the
Mississippi Delta (in the northwestern part of the state!) and the East Texas
piney woods. It was sung and played BY working-class blacks FOR working-class
blacks. The Blues, most importantly, is primarily a
vocal music. More than just another genre, the Blues became a way of
life for many of the singers – and indeed their audiences. The latter would be
a live audience before the advent of recordings. Originating in the logging
camps, cotton fields, railroad and levee camps; the Blues soon gravitated to
urban centres in the South.
This process was
speeded up considerably in 1920 when the first genuine blues (i.e. black) singer
entered a recording studio. After a promising debut in January backed by a
white orchestra, Mamie Smith was brought back by the Okeh record company in
August. This time she was accompanied by a black band which included such jazz
luminaries as Willie ‘The Lion’ Smith. They cut a blues number: Crazy
Blues. A surprising and immediate success, financially for the record
company and Ms. Smith, this opened the flood gates for other black singers.
Initially these were all female singers who did not play on their records.
These included Edith Wilson, Lucille Hegamin and Alberta Hunter. By 1923 some
of the heaviest (aka the finest) of these made their disc debut. The ‘big four’
are Bessie Smith, Clara Smith (no relation), Ma Rainey and Ida Cox. Often
backed by some of the top jazz musicians of the day; Louis Armstrong, King
Oliver, James P. Johnson and Buster Bailey among them. Other singers of only
slightly less talent also made records around this time: Rosa Henderson, Sippie
Wallace and Viola McCoy, for example.
Therein lies the
irony. This was an early urban form of blues in various grades of
authenticity. Many singers included traditional/rural blues verses in their
recordings. The rural singers themselves only came into their own when the
record companies were seeing a decline in sales and started looking further
afield- often literally! By the end of 1925 and the start of 1926 the
rural/country/downhome blues entered centre stage.
Some of the giants
were captured on disc from this period on to the early 1930s. Names like Blind
Lemon Jefferson, Charley Patton, Blind Willie McTell, Son House, Bukka White and
Barbecue Bob hit the black record-buying public; with titles such as Lemon’s
Matchbox Blues in 1927. Nearly 30 years later rock-a-billy star Carl
Perkins would re-record it as Matchbox for Sun Records in Memphis,
Tennessee. A decade or so further on the Beatles would also cut a version.
These earlier blues artists, and many more, usually played solo featuring vocals
and a myriad of guitar sounds and styles. With few exceptions they did not read
music and drew on a strictly oral tradition. There were also some pioneering
harmonica (‘harp’) players who recorded solo: Jaybird Coleman, Noah Lewis,
DeFord Bailey and Alfred Lewis. The first two played in jug bands such as the
Birmingham Jug Band and Cannon’s Jug Stompers.
strand of the Blues. These groups were part of a strong black string band
tradition in the South. Mississippi’s Big Joe Williams although a solo
performer with a 9-string guitar would sometimes play with a small group (the
Washboard Blues Singers). At his debut on record in 1935 he was accompanied by
a one-string fiddle and a washboard: Dad Tracy and Chasey Collins respectively.
Their first track was the first version of Baby Please Don’t Go on
record. Many years later British blues and r ‘n b groups would perform this and
sometimes record it. The Animals from northeastern England and even later still
Van Morrison's band Them cut a very creditable performance – the fastest I’ve
ever heard. Other bands to cut versions were AC/DC, Aerosmith and even Bob
Dylan. A myriad of other examples of the Blues’ awesome influence on music
today, including jazz, could be cited. But limitation of space rules, OK.
The Blues has
always been a genre of music with a FEELING. Lacking this essential ingredient
cannot be compensated for by technical prowess alone. The earlier singers would
relate subjects and situations well-known to their original audiences and an
unassailable rapport and feeling of solidarity was forged; one that had
beginnings back in slavery days in the early 19th. C. and beyond.
One verse I recall from memory was put down by Buddy Moss from Georgia in 1933:
talk about money, but I haven’t got none. (x 2)
But I’m so glad that I ain’t the only one.
In the 1930s Blues
was becoming more urbanized, yet again. In Chicago artists, who had migrated
from the South, such as Big Bill Broonzy, Washboard Sam, Memphis Minnie, Tampa
Red, and Sonny Boy Williamson (No.1.) were increasingly using more
instrumentalisation. As well as piano, upright and imitation bass, 2nd.
and 3rd. guitars, harmonicas, drums and some jazzhorns like trumpet
and saxes featured on pre-war Chicago blues. Most of these of course had
featured in earlier rural blues. The piano in particular by 1929/1930 was often
the only accompaniment to such legends of boogie woogie/barrelhouse recordings
by the like of Roosevelt Sykes, Little Brother Montgomery, Will Ezell, et al.
But the rural
blues were still ‘speaking’. In 1936-37 Robert Johnson made a phenomenal set of
29 titles. The most famous being Crossroad Blues with urgent slide
guitar. Eric Clapton and Cream would re-make (in virtually every sense of the
word!) this in the UK some thirty years later.
Blues had been
labeled ‘race music’ in the early 20th. C. but was re-named Rhythm
and Blues (R n’ B) by the1940s. With the introduction of the electric guitar
into the Blues in early 1938 and added saxes, rocking bands led by Roy Milton,
Tiny Bradshaw, Amos Milburn, Louis Jordan, and Joe Liggins were just a few that
carried the Blues onwards. Professor Longhair, Smiley Lewis and Fats Domino
carried it on into the 1950s. Along with doowop groups inspired by early black
quartets/quintettes featuring mostly gospel music. Many whites would sneak
around the outside of places they were playing at (segregation was still in
force) and heard sounds they really dug. Rock-a-Billy artists such as Charlie
Feathers, Ray Smith, and Carl Perkins put their own stamp on the Blues mixed in
with old-timey/country roots. Around 1952 a man called Bill Haley changed his
band’s name and they became Bill Haley’s Comets. Soon Elvis Presley, Gene
Vincent, ;Little Richard, et al. would follow.
Rock ‘n Roll, ‘a
child of the Blues’, as Muddy Waters famously once said – had been born. "Long
may the Blues wake up this morning and every morning".
Haymes and Alan White
31st. July, 2009
NB. If you wish to
Check out Alan White's website www.earlyblues.com
Listen to Roots Of Rock ‘n Roll on Mondays 3-4 pm & Get The
Blues, Catch The Train An’ Ride on Wednesdays 2-3 pm. Both hosted by
‘Mississippi Max’ on Diversity Community Radio 103.5 fm and also online.
Read Blues Fell This Morning by Paul Oliver and
Railroadin’ Some (railroads in the early blues)
by Max Haymes.
Website and Photos © Copyright 2000-2009 Alan
White. All Rights Reserved.
Text (this page) © Copyright 2009 Max Haymes
and Alan White. All rights reserved.
For permission to copy, email:
Top of Page